Report About the Witnessing of
Two Unidentified Nocturnal Aerial Lights
in the Sooke Hills - Sooke Basin Area,
Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

2004 August 19 (Thursday),
01:20 - 01:40 PDT (08:20 - 08:40 UTC)





Witnessed by Roger Gordon Smith

Report by Roger Gordon Smith
Report Completed on 2004 October 22
Supplemented with a Landsat-7 Image on 2004 October 26



[The witness-author's e-mail address has been withheld from this web publication]



 

Preface

This report of an anomalous event, witnessed by the author, has been produced for two reasons:

  1. As a personal record for the author;

  2. As a witness record for those persons involved in the objective, scientific investigation and research of anomalous events.

This report can be distributed freely -- but only in its entirety and in its original, unchanged form -- amongst those involved in the objective, scientific investigation and research of anomalous events, for the purposes of such investigation and research.

In any commercially published media (any media that has a fee or any other monetary-value attached to it), references to and brief extracts from the text in this report are permitted. However, substantial text extracts from this report, in whole or in part, and reproduction of the whole or part of each of the three maps (graphics files), are not permitted without the written permission of the author-witness.

The author-witness reserves and asserts his full rights to the ownership and copyright of this report and its associated graphics files, but not to those elements of the graphics files that are copyright of other parties, as acknowledged in each of the files. All rights reserved.

This report will best be viewed with a screen resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels; it was tested satisfactorily in the Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6.0 environment.

This report should be read in conjunction with my three accompanying annotated maps and one aerial view file:

   Map 1
   Map 2
   Map 3
   Photo.
- Geographic Overview (useful as the main reference throughout);
- Earthquakes and Power Lines;
- Fault Lines.
- Landsat-7 image no. N-10-45_2000 (cropped)

Copyright 2004 Roger Gordon Smith.


Contents


Geographic Overview

This map is intended to be referred to as my report is read.
It can be loaded into a separate window for reference when doing so; click on the map to load it.


Summary (Abstract)

  1. The early hours of Thursday 19 August 2004 were warm and I could not sleep. This prompted me to get up and wander to the kitchen. I saw the first of the lights when entering the kitchen, its brightness immediately catching my eyes through the window. I first thought that it was a new floodlight, brighter than the rest, on a construction site that was 2km-away. For the next 20-minutes, from 1:20a.m. to 1:40a.m. PDT, I was to observe a maximum of two lights moving around in this part of the western sky.
     

  2. The lights were bright, white in colour. There was a tint of amber to their colour, but this may have been the result of light spillage from the city's street lights closer to me.
     

  3. From my viewpoint in Victoria -- a condominium on a hill, with views across the local rooftops to the western hills -- the lights appeared as if above the ridge lines of the Sooke Hills in Metchosin (the closest ridge lines are approximately 16km-distant). However, the lights were most probably positioned west of these ridge lines, closer to, if not occasionally above, the Sooke Basin (23.5km-distant to its centre). The lights were in close proximity to the sea, part of the Juan de Fuca Strait.
     

  4. The lights appeared stationary at times; otherwise, they appeared slow to moderate in their movement, ascending and descending while moving north and south (across my field of view). The lights made no sudden movements nor abrupt changes in direction.
     

  5. The maximum elevation of the lights was approximately 2,000-feet (610-metre), but for most of the time they were lower, approximately 1,000-feet (305-metre) or less.
     

  6. The two lights were present together in the sky for approximately 7-minutes; just one was seen for the remainder of the time.
     

  7. The first light to descend did so beyond (west side of) Mount Helmcken, possibly close to it.
     

  8. The second light to descend did so in one of two places: either beyond (WSW of) Mount Matheson (this being more likely), or somewhere between the Metchosin ridges, from approximately 1.5km-north of Montreul Hill to the northern face of Mount Matheson (less likely).
     

  9. The lights descended approximately 10-minutes- and approximately 5km-apart.
     

  10. The first light to descend may have been associated with a condensation-like cloud trail. It lit this up from below when it was behind the ridge lines, out of my direct view.
     

  11. I have been interested in astronomy and aviation for most of my life. I am familiar with observing the night sky and aircraft at night.
     

  12. I can state with certainty that the lights were not astronomical bodies (they were not planets, stars, meteors, bollides, etc.) nor artificial satellites.
     

  13. The flight characteristics (speeds and motions) of the two lights were not beyond those achievable by a conventional aircraft that is capable of stationary and/or very slow flight (to appear as if stationary), and forward flight at moderate speeds. A helicopter obviously comes to mind. However, the required navigation lights and anti-collision lights -- which I have always seen before -- were not visible at any time during the duration of my observations. Additionally, the constant white lights, never flickering, wavering, nor being lost from my view as they moved across the sky, appeared to be omni-directional; this was not consistent with these being the uni-directional approach-lighting and/or landing-lighting of an aircraft in flight.
     

  14. Weather conditions were good. The western hemisphere (I could not see the eastern hemisphere from my location) appeared to be clear of cloud, certainly in my immediate vicinity of Victoria and Esquimalt. The glare of local street lighting diminished the clarity of my views of the western sky, but there did not appear to be any cloud farther to the west.
     

  15. This is the first time I have observed lights in the sky that I cannot identify nor confidently explain. They were certainly not astronomical in nature, at least, not in the conventional sense, and they were certainly local to the Sooke Hills area. The observations were certainly inconsistent with my previous experiences of conventional aircraft activity; sufficiently anomalous to warrant my writing this report. However, I cannot, at this time, rule out aircraft activity with certainty.

Return to CONTENTS


Details

Appearance of the Lights

  1. At first, only one light was visible, it catching my eyes by its brightness as soon as I looked towards the kitchen window. After observing this light for a few minutes -- during which it did not appear to move -- I went away from the window to get dressed and to pick up my lightweight binocular, a Vivitar brand with 10x magnification and 21mm-diameter objective lenses (a low resolving power). Upon returning to the window after approximately 3-minutes absence, two lights were visible, neither in the position that I had first seen a light.
     

  2. Each light was identical in appearance: bright, white in colour, with a hint of amber. This amber tint may have been a feature of the light itself, or the result of a colour cast created by the spilling of the light from the closer city lights. The brightness and colour of each light appeared to be constant, always the same whether it was stationary or moving.
     

  3. To my unaided eyes, and also through my binocular, these lights did not appear to be point sources. They had a very small (as seen by me) cross-sectional area; whether this was circular or slightly elongated (elliptical, flattened slightly at the top and bottom), I could not establish with certainty. As an astronomical analogy, they were like observing a planet rather than a star (I stress that this is an analogy; the lights were most definitely neither of these; indeed, there were no planets in the sky at the time of my observations).
     

  4. Excluding the times I was away from the window (two occasions; approximately 5-minutes in total), I observed one or both lights for a total of approximately 15-minutes. At no time during this period, despite looking specifically for such features, did I see any of the navigation lights and anti-collision lights associated with commercial, private, and military aircraft: there were no port (red) and starboard (green) navigation lights, no rotating red anti-collision beacons, and no strobing, white anti-collision lights. I have occasionally seen aircraft at night from my same viewing position, they also within the vicinity of the hills, and their navigation lights have always been discernible and their white anti-collision lights have always been obvious (which is exactly as they should be).
     

  5. I saw nothing to indicate that the lights were connected to a solid structure. I saw just the lights themselves, always visible and constant in brightness, irrespective of how they moved. The lights were not occluded by any structural feature. I also failed to see flickering or wavering in the lights that would be indicative of vibrations caused by movement.
     

  6. The size and brightness of the lights had me mentally comparing them with, amongst other things: a floodlight on a construction site 2km-away; the headlights of a road vehicle on the hills approximately 16km-away; an aircraft's approach-, landing-, or auxiliary spot-lighting, approximately 16km-away. None of these comparisons was consistent with my observations. My thoughts about each of these possibilities -- and others -- are discussed further in the section, Considerations During My Observation Period.
     

  7. After the first light had descended behind the ridge lines, I could make out its continued descent for a short while, this due to the changing position of an upward glow from the light. This suggested that there was a light mist in its area, and that the light, in part, had an upward orientation.
     

  8. After the first light had just descended behind the ridge lines, and for one brief moment, it lit up, from below, the base of a cloud that appeared to be above the hills. This cloud appeared to be a narrow strip, extending approximately west-east, close to or along the track that the light had appeared to have just moved along. The cloud curved towards the north at the easterly end of the lit area. This observation -- through my binocular -- was tantalisingly brief. Whether the light was related to the cause of the cloud trail (a condensation trail perhaps; if so, the cloud was much wider than the light itself), or whether the cloud was there naturally, prior to the light's passage, I cannot say (small patches of cloud amongst the hills, at night, are not uncommon). No cloud was visible at any other time. When the second light descended behind the ridge lines, I looked specifically for such a cloud, but none was seen.

    Sounds

  9. I heard no sound that I could associate with the two lights. Given the distances to the lights, this is not significant nor unexpected (it would, of course, be interesting to know if anyone living in the vicinity of the Metchosin hills and Sooke Basin heard or saw anything). However, I have heard the sound of the turbo-prop engines on aircraft (usually twin-engined DHC-8 commercial aircraft), albeit faintly, when they have passed approximately above, or a little east-side of, the Metchosin hills (this is a rarely used route at night), they being approximately 16km-distant or less.

    Movement of the Lights

  10. The lights appeared stationary at times, sometimes for a few minutes; otherwise, they appeared slow to moderate in their movement, ascending and descending while moving across part of my field of view (a north-south component). There was no fast or sudden movement, nor any abrupt change of direction.
     

  11. The lights did not appear to be moving in formation. Each light moved, or remained stationery, without the other appearing to follow suite. The apparent distance between the two lights was never constant.
     

  12. One light subsequently descended beyond (west side of) Mount Helmcken, which means that it was farther than 16.9km from my position, but it was possibly close to the hill (within a few kilometres perhaps). I did not see this light again. Its descent also marked the northern-limit of either lights' travels across my field of view during my observation period.
     

  13. The second light remained visible for about 10-more-minutes. It then descended behind the ridge lines, but south of the previous light's descent position. This second light's descent also marked the southern-limit of either lights' travels across my field of view during my observation period. This second light's descent was either beyond (WSW of) Mount Matheson (this is more likely), or somewhere between the Metchosin ridges, from approximately 1.5km-north of Montreul Hill to the northern face of Mount Matheson (less likely). This was the last time I saw either of the lights. I continued looking for approximately 20-more-minutes, but I saw none.
     

  14. As each light descended behind the ridge lines, it did so quite steeply, with an apparent southward-trend to its track (they descended towards my left). The descent angle of each track across my field of view was at least approximately 40-down from the horizontal (this was for the second light to descend from view; the first light's descent angle was steeper, but I had no useful landmarks, which I had for the second light, to compare its angle of descent against).
     

  15. As the lights descended from my view they did not appear to light any part of the hills that were facing me.
     

  16. The lights descended at least 4km-apart, more-likely 5km- to 6km-apart.

    Viewing Conditions, Positions, Heights, and Distances

  17. I observed the lights through both an open and a closed window, this making no significant difference to the appearance of the lights. All internal domestic lights were switched off throughout.
     

  18. Weather conditions were good. The western hemisphere (I could not see the eastern hemisphere from my location) looked to be clear of cloud, certainly in my immediate vicinity of Victoria and Esquimalt. The glare of the local street lighting diminished the clarity of my views of the western sky, but there did not appear to be any cloud farther to the west.
     

  19. In the darkness, with no cloud to reflect the urban light-spill, the ridge lines of the hills could not be seen against the night sky. This made it difficult for me to judge the precise positions of the lights. My view in the darkness was very 'two-dimensional': north-south movement (across my field of view) was easy to determine, but depth perception (along my line of sight) was minimal.
     

  20. A nearby tree in a garden 100-metre-away, a lit-up tower-crane on a building site 2km-away, and red lights on top of three communication masts on the ridges in the vicinity of Mount Helmcken, all provided useful landmarks for my judging the apparent heights of the lights. In addition to the communication masts, I knew that the upper parts of the tree and the crane were -- in terms of my relative lines-of-sight -- above the distant ridge lines.
     

  21. The aerial lights placed the ridge lines into silhouette when they descended behind them, providing me with an approximate relative-fix when they did so.
     

  22. Both lights most likely descended beyond all the ridge lines that are visible (in the daylight) to me, rather than between them. The farthest ridges that I can see in daylight extend approximately from Mount Helmcken to Mount Matheson, 16.9km- to 21.1km-distant. The first light certainly descended beyond Mount Helmcken, and the second light most likely descended beyond Mount Matheson. I formed the impression from each light's descent that they were not far beyond the ridges, but also not so close as to be immediately behind them (the lights did not light the sides or tops of the ridge lines facing me, as they descended). An obvious assumption from the subsequent mapping of my observations is that the lights were close to the Sooke Basin, the centre of the basin being approximately 23.5km-distant from my position.
     

  23. The apparent heights of the lights, for most of the time, placed them along my lines-of-sight close to where I visualised the ridge lines to be. The highest I saw the lights was during their final movements, just before each began its descent to subsequently pass behind the ridge lines.
     

  24. The ridge lines in the area of my observations are no more than approximately 320-metre (1,050 feet) in elevation. They are highest at the northern end of the area in which I saw the lights (Mount Helmcken) and trend -- with exceptions -- to lower elevations to the south (for example, 195-metre (640 feet) at Montreul Hill).
     

  25. Using the landmarks I had as a guide, and relating these and my observations to the mountain ridges (which I viewed the next morning), I estimate that the maximum elevation of the lights -- which occurred shortly before each light descended from view -- was approximately 600-metre (1,969-feet) to 668-metre (approx. 2,192-feet). This approximation is based on the assumption that the lights were at a distance from me that was equal to, or between, that of Mount Matheson (21.1km-away) and the centre of Sooke Basin (approximately 23.5km-away). For most of the time the lights were lower than this, appearing to be approximately at the height of the ridge lines as seen from my position; they were therefore most likely to have been close to approximately 320-metre (1,050-feet) and less for much of the time.
     

  26. Any movement the lights may have made along my line of sight (that is, towards or away from me; west-east) was not obvious. Front-to-back depth of vision was extremely difficult to judge. If there was front-to-back movement relative to me, it was not sufficient to manifest itself by a change in the apparent brightness and apparent size of the lights. The lights appeared constant in their brightness and size throughout.

    Considerations During My Observation Period

  27. Having been interested in astronomy for most of my life, I am familiar with observing the night sky. The lights I saw were definitely not stars, planets, meteors, bollides, or artificial satellites. There were actually no planets in the sky at the time of my observations.
     

  28. The lights were clearly local, somewhere close to the Sooke Hills in Metchosin and the Sooke Basin. One light, for example, lit up, from below, the base of a cloud that appeared to be above the hills.
     

  29. When I first saw a light, its apparent low height and line-of-sight made it appear to be just above a construction site 2km-away. I considered the possibility that it was a new floodlight on the construction sight, noticeably brighter than the rest, but the subsequent events ruled this out.
     

  30. I considered the possibility that I was seeing the headlights of a road vehicle on the distant hills, they pointing directly along my line-of-sight. I have seen such vehicle lights, and confirmed them as such, once before. Subsequent viewing ruled this out, not least the observations that each light was definitely in the air.
     

  31. The flight characteristics of each light could certainly have been achieved with a conventional helicopter; less-likely, but perhaps still possible, with an airship (dirigible), autogyro, or a fixed-wing aircraft capable of very slow flight (an aircraft moving very slowly and directly towards me, at distance, could possibly appear stationary; but for periods of up to 3-minutes?). However, this aircraft analogy becomes inconsistent when the appearance of the lights is considered. There were no navigation and anti-collision lights, just the constant white lights. The lights were always orientated exactly along my lines-of-sight, even when they were moving 4km- to 6km-across my field of view. This suggests omni-directional lighting (at least in my horizontal plane), but the approach-, landing-, and spot-lighting on an aircraft is, to the best of my knowledge, all uni-directional, and I would expect such lighting, when moving across my line-of-sight, to be visible for only part of the time, to quickly be lost from view. The lights also moved smoothly, there being no flickering, wavering, or undulating to suggest vibrations and bouncing caused by movement.

    † Through my experiences with observing aircraft at night, I am aware that the red and green navigation lights, and the red anti-collision beacons, can sometimes not be seen due to the overwhelming brightness of the approach- and landing-lighting; however, such lighting has become visible when the aircraft has changed its orientation with respect to me (usually, it requires only a little movement in an aircraft's orientation for this to occur). To therefore view two aerial lights, for a total of approximately 15-minutes, moving across approximately 14 of my field of view, and to not see the navigation and beacon lights, suggests to me that they were not actually present. I am also aware that not all aircraft have flashing (strobing) white anti-collision lights, this being the case with some smaller, private, general aviation craft.
     

  32. Although the movements and speeds of the lights were inconsistent with an unpowered craft, I did specifically look for parts of such a craft, such as a balloon canopy, lit from below or within by a flame or by the visible white light. Nothing was seen. Certainly, flying a hot air balloon at night would not be a wise action.
     

  33. The lights neither looked nor moved like flares, with or without parachutes. I will qualify this by saying that I have not seen a flare at night, but these were not what I would imagine them to be like. The lights were constant in brightness, not flickering; constant in size; had no fuzzy tails; displayed no downward trending flight, rather, frequent changes in direction of travel (up as well as down, left and right, and long stationary periods); the stationary periods lasted sometimes for up to approximately 3-minutes. I am not aware of the wind conditions above the hills and in the Sooke Basin at the times of my observations, but for a balmy night in Summer I would be surprised if the wind was not calm or of a very low speed. Additionally, this was at a time when a significant fire-hazard-warning was in effect due to the dry forests; the use of flares over the forested hills would not have been a wise action.

    Other Considerations

    Military Craft

  34. This sub-section considers military aircraft. It should be noted that all the inconsistencies I have raised with respect to the lights being carried by an aircraft (any aircraft) remain, unless military aircraft are permitted to fly without navigation and anti-collision lighting in peacetime in civilian areas. Additionally, the purpose of bright, omni-directional lighting on a military aircraft is not apparent (to the best of my knowledge, search lights -- used for air-sea rescue -- for example, are uni-directional).
     

  35. The lights were observed in an area that is near to or not far from the Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt and three Department of National Defence training areas, but they were not within or above any of these areas. If the military was carrying out night activities, it was doing so outside its training areas. I have written, via e-mail, to CFB Esquimalt, explaining the nature of my observations and asking if it had any military activities or exercises in this area at the time of my observations. I also asked it to confirm the lighting used on Canadian military aircraft at night. It has not replied. I am disappointed that it has not even had the courtesy to acknowledge my request.
     

  36. I am aware that the Canadian military has, or has had, on trials, a small number of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs; these were previously referred to by the military as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). These are relatively light, radio-controlled (remotely-piloted) aircraft that can be used to carry various payloads for aerial reconnaissance. At least five different models have been used, four of which have been fixed-wing aircraft, the other, rotary.
     

  37. One fixed-wing UAV has been used at least once on Vancouver Island, in an exercise during the daylight hours off the coast of Tofino in 2003. The Department of National Defence issues news releases about these tests; however, there have been no DND news releases to suggest that any UAV was present and in use in the Victoria area, at any time.
     

  38. A major trial involving UAVs was held on Baffin Island and in Atlantic Canada from 22 August to 31 August 2004, this starting 3-days after my sighting of the lights on the west coast.
     

  39. Refer to the References section for further details.

    Association with Communications Masts

  40. There are at least four communication masts on the ridge lines, three with red lighting, positioned at and north-of the north end of the area in which the lights travelled. I am not familiar with the purposes of these masts, other than one use is for weather reporting for shipping. Despite the first light descending beyond this area, I observed nothing over the 15-minutes of direct viewing to suggest that the lights and the masts had any direct association with each other.

    Association with Electrical Power Lines

  41. Refer to Map 2. I am aware of just one electricity power line in this region of the Sooke Hills, this along the north side of the west end of Sooke Basin, turning approximately north-eastwards, to pass approximately 3.9km-west of Mount Helmcken. Despite the first light descending along my line-of-sight in part of this area, I observed nothing over the 15-minutes of direct viewing to suggest that the lights and the power line had any direct association with each other.



    Association with Earthquakes and Fault Lines

  42. I am aware that aerial lights have sometimes been reported above active fault lines at the Earth's surface, and that the west coast of Canada is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. The lights that I observed did not have me suspecting them, at any time, to be related to seismic activity (not glowing gases, such as methane, for example). However, I did, for completeness, check the earthquake activity records produced by the Pacific Geoscience Centre in Sidney, BC.
     

  43. Refer to Map 2. There has been no earthquake activity in the immediate area in which the lights were seen, for the 12-months prior and the 2-months subsequent to the lights being seen. The two closest earthquakes in this period have been 5.6km to the south side of Mount Matheson, and 5.9km to the north side of Mount Helmcken; these were very low magnitude events (0.8 and 1.0 on the Richter Scale), and, for the one that had its depth calculated, 4km-deep (it is often not possible to calculate the depth of an earthquake; in such cases an estimated depth is assigned to fix the foci, so that the position of the epicentre can be given).
     


  44. Refer to Map 3. There is a major fault line, the Leech River Fault, that, at its closest, passes approximately 6km-north of the northern limit of the area in which the lights were seen. The Leech River Fault was created at least 40-million-years ago and it has been inactive for a very long time (there has certainly been no activity since settlements began in this region; this is also true of the other major fault lines in this region). This fault line is inclined at approximately 60-down from the horizontal at the surface, towards the north (it lessens to an inclination of 35 to 45 at a depth of approximately 3km). Although the fault line itself is inactive, deep earthquakes of low magnitude are not uncommon below its surface trace (See Map 2; the three earthquakes in a line to the north of the area in which the lights were seen, from the south to the west sides of Mount Finlayson). Information source: Yorath and Nasmith, reference [5], pages 39-40, 63 (map).



    Assessment

  45. This is the first time I have observed lights in the sky that I cannot identify nor confidently explain. They were certainly not astronomical in nature, at least, not in the conventional sense, and they were certainly local to the Sooke Hills area. The observations were certainly inconsistent with my previous experiences of conventional aircraft activity; sufficiently anomalous to warrant my writing this report. However, I cannot, at this time, rule out aircraft activity with certainty.

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About the Witness and the Report's Author

[The witness-author's personal details have been withheld from this web publication].

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References

All references were correct on the date of completion of this report.

Geographical and Geological Resources

  1. Natural Resources Canada, National Topographic System (NTS) maps:
    Sheet 92B/5, Sooke, 1:50,000.
    Sheet 92B/6, Victoria, 1:50,000.
     

  2. Microsoft Streets and Trips 2002 software. Used for the base of my Map 1.
     

  3. Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney Subdivision (also known as the Pacific Geoscience Centre): Preliminary Earthquake List: Last 5 Years in Western Canada; http://www.pgc.nrcan.gc.ca/seismo/recent/wc.5yr.list.html
     

  4. Aeronautical navigation-mapping software, NAV 3.0 by Ted Wright. The Pacific Geoscience Centre's data (see above) were downloaded, reformatted, and used in the NAV system. NAV, together with a separate graphics-editor, was used to produce the details on my Map 2. NAV is freeware, designed as a navigational-aid viewer and flight planner for use with the Microsoft Flight Simulator. However, I have found much use for it with real-life, geographic data, aeronautical and otherwise (MS Flight Simulator is not required, but experience and skills beyond normal user-level are necessary to format the data for use within the system). Further details: http://nav.consequential.org/
     

  5. Book. The Geology of Southern Vancouver Island: A Field Guide, by C.J. Yorath and H.W. Nasmith. Orca Book Publishers, 1995. ISBN 1-55143-032-0. Used for fault line reference (pp 39-40) and the basis for my Map 3 (page 63).
     

  6. NASA Landsat-7 image, N-10-45_2000, from the web site: https://zulu.ssc.nasa.gov/mrsid/

    Military Resources

  7. Department of National Defence / Canadian Forces (DND/CF) Media Advisory: MA-03.021, 9 July 2003:
    Canadian Forces Test UAV on Vancouver Island; http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/newsroom/view_news_e.asp?id=1139
     
  8. CFB Esquimalt newspaper, The Lookout, July 2003; a summary of the testing of a UAV on Vancouver Island:
    Not your ordinary remote controlled airplane; http://www.forces.gc.ca/dcds/units/cfec/pages/events/uav_e.asp
     
  9. Department of National Defence / Canadian Forces (DND/CF) Media Advisory NR–04.036, 4 May 2004:
    Canadian Forces Purchases Mini UAV System; http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/Newsroom/view_news_e.asp?id=1368
     
  10. Department of National Defence / Canadian Forces (DND/CF) Media Advisory NR–04.063, 19 August 2004:
    Canadian Forces to Conduct Major UAV Trial
    ; http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/Newsroom/view_news_e.asp?id=1433
     
  11. E-mail address of CFB Esquimalt: cfbesquimalt@shaw.ca
     
  12. The Canadian American Strategic Review (CASR), based at the Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, BC, Canada:
    Canadian Forces Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Project; http://www.sfu.ca/casr/101-uav1.htm
     
  13. The Canadian American Strategic Review (CASR) based at the Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, BC, Canada:
    Canadian Forces Tactical UAV -- CU-161
    Sperwer Background; http://www.sfu.ca/casr/101-uav6.htm
     
  14. The Canadian American Strategic Review (CASR) based at the Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, BC, Canada:
    Canadian Forces Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle -- the ACR
    Silver Fox; http://www.sfu.ca/casr/101-uav7.htm
     
  15. The Canadian American Strategic Review (CASR) based at the Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, BC, Canada:
    Canadian Forces Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle -- the CU-163 Altair; http://www.sfu.ca/casr/101-uav8.htm
     
  16. The Canadian American Strategic Review (CASR) based at the Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, BC, Canada:
    Canadian Forces Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Trials & Developments; http://www.sfu.ca/casr/101-uav4.htm
     

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